Shortcut Distillation

Shortcut Distillation

Distillation is the most common unit operation for separating liquid mixtures into valuable and high purity products. The normal procedure for solving a typical multi-component distillation problem is to solve the MESH (Material balance, Equilibrium, Summation and Heat) balance equations stage-by-stage. Though computer programs are normally available for the rigorous solution of the MESH equations, …

Vapor Liquid Vertical Separator

Vapor Liquid Vertical Separator

Vapor Liquid separators are one of the most common types of process equipment. This article provides step-by-step procedure for two phase vertical vapor liquid separator design. Vapor liquid separation occurs in three stages. The first stage, primary separation uses an inlet diverter so that momentum of the liquid entrained in the vapor causes the largest …

Pump Sizing Calculation

Pump Sizing Calculation

Pump is a most common equipment used in a chemical plant to transfer fluid from one location to another. This article shows how to do pump sizing calculation to determine differential head required to be generated by pump based on suction and discharge conditions. Suction Pressure Pressure at pump suction is calculated as following PSuct. …

Property Estimation Joback Method

Property Estimation Joback Method

The Joback method is a group contribution method which calculates thermophysical and transport properties as a function of the sum of group parameters. It uses a very simple and easy to assign group scheme. This article shows how to calculate properties using Joback Method in an excel spreadsheet. Example Estimate properties for 1-Butanol based on …

Heat Exchanger Rating (Bell-Delaware Method)

Heat Exchanger Rating (Bell-Delaware Method)

In Bell Delaware method, the fluid flow in the shell is divided into a number of individual streams. Each of these streams introduces a correction factor which is used to correct heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop across the shell. This article gives step-by-step guidance on doing heat exchanger rating analysis based on Bell-Delware method. …

LMTD Correction Factor Charts

LMTD Correction Factor Charts

Heat transfer rate in the exchanger is represented by q = U * A * F * LMTD here F (< 1) is interpreted as a geometric correction factor, that when applied to the LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference) of a counter flow heat exchanger, provides the effective temperature difference of the heat exchanger under …

Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil)

Jacketed Vessel Heat Transfer (Half Pipe Coil)

Agitator equipped vessels with half pipe coil jackets are widely used in variety of process applications. This article shows how to calculate heat transfer in an agitated vessel provided with an external half pipe coil jacket. Overall heat transfer coefficient, U is defined as 1/U = 1/hi + ffi + x/k + ffo + 1/ho …

Estimating Binary Interaction Parameter for Peng Robinson EOS

Estimating Binary Interaction Parameter for Peng Robinson EOS

This article shows how to estimate binary interaction parameter (BIP) used in Peng Robinson (PR) Equation of State (EOS) from experimental data by regression in excel spreadsheet. Example Determine binary interaction parameter used in Peng Robinson EOS for a mixture of acetone and chloroform from Tx-y experimental data available at 101.33 kPa. Obtain pure component …

Simple Multicomponent Distillation

Simple Multicomponent Distillation

This article shows application of Thiele and Geddes method to solve simple multi-component distillation problem in excel spreadsheet based on θ method of convergence. Antoine equation is used to calculate equilibrium constant Ki. Ki = exp(Ai – Bi / (T + Ci))/P where, Ai, Bi & Ci are Antoine equation constants for a component i, …

Shortcut Sizing for Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

Shortcut Sizing for Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

An air-cooled exchanger is used to cool fluids with ambient air. 1 inch OD tube is the most popular diameter and the most common fins are 1/2 inch or 5/8 inch high. Tube configuration used in this guideline : 1 inch OD tube, 5/8 inch fin height, 10 fins per inch and 2.5 inch triangular …